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7 Do they not blaspheme the noble name by which you are called?
7 Are not they the ones who blaspheme the good name which has been invoked over you?
1–26 Appraisal of Faith-inspired Action This chapter presents James' demonstration of the integral relationship between genuine faith and actions. It falls into two basic sections:
1–26 Deliberative Rhetoric The whole of chapter 2 is a fine example of deliberative (sumbouleutikon) rhetoric (see → 1.3.3), where the speaker seeks to dissuade his audience from a certain action or exhort them to it. Here James attempts to dissuade his readers from showing favoritism to the rich ( Rhet.Jas 2:1–13) and to exhort them to live out their faith through actions (Jas 2:14–26). The diatribe style is used frequently in deliberative rhetoric.
1–13 Exhortation to Impartiality towards the Rich
Two specific passages have attracted the greatest attention in the history of interpretation:
7 blaspheme the noble name The Name and God’s People To "blaspheme" essentially means to slander, to speak badly, of God or of people.
See further Christian Tradition Jas 2:7.
Propositio (the proposition to be proved; Jas 2:1): The faith of Jesus Christ is incompatible with displays of partiality towards the rich and powerful within the Christian community.
Ratio (the causal basis for the propositio; Jas 2:2–4): The specific example of partiality in seating the rich and influential shows that community members are making judgments incompatible with the non-judgmental faith of Jesus Christ.
Confirmatio (further confirmation of the propositio; Jas 2:5–7): In aligning themselves with the rich, church members align themselves with enemies of the faith: it is the rich who oppress poor community members and who blaspheme the name of the Lord Jesus:
Exornatio (embellishment and enrichment of the argument once the propositio is established; Jas 2:8–11): the one who shows favoritism violates the royal law (i.e., the faith of Jesus Christ: the Torah of the Kingdom taught by Jesus).
Conplexio (a brief conclusion summarizing the argument; Jas 2:12–13): James exhorts the community to abandon favoritism and to speak and act in a way consistent with the royal law. If they continue with their unwarranted judgmental and partial behavior, they themselves can expect a harsh judgment.
1–13 beloved brothers Softening of the Criticism While strongly criticizing the community for the sin of partiality towards the rich, James uses rhetorical techniques to soften his criticism’s harshness:
He also employs hypothetical scenarios and rhetorical questions instead of directly accusing members of sin:
Only at Jas 2:6a does one find direct accusation: “But you have dishonored the poor person.”
4–7 have you not made distinctions Confirmatio: Rhetorical Questions Written in the diatribe style, this section asks a series of rapid-fire rhetorical quesitons (cf. → 1.12; cf. Diatr.→ 9.2.6–11 on using rhetorical questions in proofs): Inst.
In each case, the expected answer is "Yes": these are points that James' readers should know.
James' questions also gives a clue as to the social location of James' audience. Since he questions them on their response to both rich and poor, it may be inferred that they themselves are at neither extreme.
7a name The Divine Name: God and Jesus' Presence and Authority In ancient Judaism, the name (Hebrew: šem) of God had a rich significance. A central point in the relationship between God and Israel occurs when God reveals his name (Yhwh) to Moses at the burning bush (Ex 3:14). Jesus shares the divine name, Lord, with God the Father (cf. Phil 2:9; Rv 1:8).
In the ancient world in general, a person or deity's "name" is not just an arbitrary label: it represents the person or deity's essence. The importance of the "name" of Jesus is so self-evident that no other reference is necessary: the apostles rejoiced "that they had been found worthy to suffer dishonor for the sake of the name" (Acts 5:41; cf. 3Jn 7; →Ign 3.1). Eph.
The "name" of God was understood as a kind of manifestation of God's presence on earth. Thus Solomon says of the Jerusalem Temple, "I have built this house for the name of the Lord, the God of Israel" (1Kgs 8:20; cf. Dt 12:11; 14:23). This conception is similar to the "glory" of the Lord as a divine manifestation: Isaiah parallels the two: "Those in the west shall fear the name of the Lord, and those in the east, his glory" (Is 59:19; cf. Biblical Intertextuality Jas 2:1b Jewish Tradition Jas 2:1b).
"Name" is closely connected to the power and authority of a person or deity (cf. Acts 4:10; 1Cor 5:3–4). Thus a prophet speaks "in the name of the Lord"(cf. Dt 18:19), i.e., by the power and authority of the Lord. Peter heals a man who is crippled "in the name of Jesus Christ" (Acts 3:6).
7 the noble name which is invoked over you Use in the Liturgy of St. James
1–13 Liberation Theology Perspectives
Commenting on Jas 2:5b from the perspective of the Latin American poor, Elsa Tamez concludes,
Tamez criticizes contemporary biblical exegetes of Jas 2:1–13 on two points:
1–13 Theme of Wholeness and Division James continues the contrast between godly wholeness and sinful division: just as an individual person should not be divided and double-minded (Jas 1:6–8), so too the church members should not be divided by showing partiality to the rich in the community (Jas 2:4). See also→James: Perfection / Wholeness in James .
6c–7 they themselves …is it not they: Emphasis Placed on “the Rich” Using the grammatically unnecessary pronoun "they" (autoi), James emphasizes the absurdity of his audience's actions: the readers show partiality to the rich, in spite of the fact that they themselves (i.e., the rich) oppress them and drag them to court.
7 blaspheme the noble name which is invoked over you The Significance of “the name”
7 the noble name that is invoked over you Indication of God's People and a Worship Context
When epikaleô is used in the passive with the preposition epi, as here ("to call a name upon someone"), it denotes a relationship of possession between the parties (e.g., the Lord promised Solomon, "if then my people, upon whom my name has been pronounced, humble themselves and pray...[2Chr 7:14]; cf. Am 9:12; Dt 28:10). Thus the people of Israel could simply be called "those who are called by the name of the Lord" (i.e, the Lord's people); terminology that was take over by Christians: cf. →Herm. Sim. 8.1.1; 8.6.4). This relationship also implies the Lord's special presence among the people.
James' language (to onomoa epikaleô) also invokes a context of worship. To call on the name of the Lord means to worship him cultically: Abram built an altar and "invoked the Lord by name (epikaleô epi tôᵢ onomati kuriou)" (Gn 12:8; cf. Gn 4:26; Zep 3:9).
James may refer specifically to baptism. Christians were baptized "in the name of Jesus Christ" (Acts 2:38; 8:16; 10:48) or "in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit" (Mt 20:19). James also refers to the presbyters of the church anointing a sick person "in the name of the Lord" (Christian Tradition Jas 5:14f).
In the biblical tradition, "the name invoked upon you" would generally refer to God. James' use is ambiguous:
James' ambiguity here corresponds with his ambiguous use of the title kurios (→James: The Title Kurios in James)—James applies the title both to the Father and to Jesus in different contexts. Here it likely refers to the name of Jesus, understood in the sense of Jesus sharing the divine name; this reinforces the association of Jesus with the divine glory or presence expressed in Jas 2:1 (Biblical Intertextuality Jas 2:1b; Jewish Tradition Jas 2:1b).
1:1–5:20 James Depictions of the Author Depictions of James, the author of the epistle, in paintings, statues, manuscript illustrations, engravings, woodcuts, and embroidery on liturgical vestments are particularly prominent in the Middle Ages. A common consensus of the artists is that the author of the epistle is James the Just, leader of the Jerusalem church; he is typically further identified with James, son of Alphaeus, one of Jesus' Twelve (Mk 3:18), and "James the Less" (Mk 15:40). The iconography of James draws particularly on accounts of James recorded in → 23 and Hist. eccl.→ 2, who in turn draw on accounts from Clement of Alexandria and Hegesipus. See also Vir. ill.→James: Introduction.
Several prominent features of these portrayals may be noted:
The following images are noteworthy:
James holds a club.
James, who resembles his brother Jesus, is second from his left. This full-scale copy was the main source for the— unfortunate—twenty-year restoration of the original (1978–1998). It includes several lost details such as Christ's feet, the transparent glass decanters on the table, and the floral motifs of the tapestries that decorate the room's interior. It was first mentioned in 1626 by the author Bartolomeo Sanese as hanging in the Certosa di Pavia, a monastery near Pavia, Italy, but it is unlikely that it was intended for this location. At some point, the upper third of the picture was cut off, and the width was reduced. Giampietrino is thought to have worked closely with Leonardo when he was in Milan. A very fine, full-size copy of this painting, before it was cut down, is installed at Tongerlo Abbey in Westerlo, near Antwerp, Belgium.
The side and central panels describe a a great hall with blue grey walls and three-colored tiles. In the side panels are depicted the half sisters of Virgin Mary, called after their fathers Mary Cleophas (left) and Mary Salome (right) together with their husbands.
Left panel: St. Mary Cleophas and Alphaeus (with the features of Friedrich the Wise with their two sons, the Apostles St. James the Less (at her breast) and Joseph Justus, called St. Barnabas, as annunciator of the Gospel of Matthew depicted with a book.
Central panel: Joseph, who seems to seems to sleep, the Virgin, dressed in blue with yellow lining, Anna and the Christ Child on her knee, who is stretching out his hand towards an apple given to him by Virgin Mary. Anna's three husbands following → are shown in the background in the matroneum: on the left Joachim, who is attracted by the holy women in front of him and whose relation is also shown by the corresponding blue and yellow color of his dress, Cleophas (with the physiognomy and chain of Emperor Maximilian I and Salomas, with the physiognomy of Sixtus Oelhafen von Schöllenbach, secretary of Friedrich III, Maximilian I and Karl V), who are talking to each other. There is an architectural structure by a great stone bench in the foreground of the central panel with two marble columns on the sides, over which is strectched a cloth of gold. On the right column is a tablet with date and signature: [LVCAS CHRONVS FACIEBAT ANNO 1509. The parapet of the matroneum is decorated by a sculptured frieze with dancing putti holding six escutcheons with the six fields of Electorate of Saxony. In the hall are shown the 17 members of the Holy Kinship. In the central panel are shown two more children of Mary Cleophas and Alpheus, the Apostles Simon, patron saint of weavers, dyers, tanners and saddlers and Jude, who went on mission and suffered their martyrdom together and therefore are regularly depicted together. Leg. aur.
Right panel: St. Mary Salome and Zebedee (with the features of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, and his brother Herzog Johann der Beständige). St. Mary Salome, dressed in gold with dark red lining, is combing her son Saint James the Greater and while Saint John the Evangelist is hiding in her dress.
James is shown holding a Bible, symbolizing his status as a scriptural writer, in one hand. James is depicted in the Mannerist style with elongated form and without any of the traditional iconographic symbols
The risen Jesus appears to James and breaks bread with him (based on an account recorded in → 2, said to be drawn from the Gospel according to the Hebrews). Vir. ill.
James holds a book and club.
James, resembling Jesus, prayers on his knees with outstretched arms. It perhaps reflects Hegesippus' statement that James spent so much time in prayer that his knees were as hard as a camel's.
The inscription bearing the name of the saint has disappeared, but the iconography—facial features and beard shape —suggest that the icon is of James. Byzantine art places him among the founding fathers of the Church. As the creator of the first liturgy containing memorial services and the author of the message, which speaks of the healing power of prayer (Jas 5:14-16), he was also worshipped in ancient times as a healer. In Novgorod, James is prayed for the end of the epidemics. In sacred iconography, the representations of James of Jerusalem alone are very rare. We know the icons of Novgorod in which he is represented with other saints: Nicholas the Thaumaturgist, James the brother of God, Ignatius the bearer of God, end of the 15th c.; James the brother of God, Cosmas and Damian, 2nd quarter of the 16th c. The icon comes from the best workshops in Moscow or Novgorod.
7 blaspheme the noble name God’s Name or the Name of Christians The tradition offers various interpretations of the identity of the “name” blasphemed by the rich.
→ ad loc. notes two ways in which the rich blaspheme. Ep. Cath.
Bar Salibi also suggests that poor behavior among Christians allows pagans to speak badly of them: